Since 1971, Medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) has been legalized in India. The legalization step was taken considering the huge burden of unsafe abortions. But, even after about 50 years, Indian women continue to have unsafe abortions. These unsafe abortions can lead to adverse and fatal consequences.
Here is a write-up to answer the most frequent queries regarding medical termination of pregnancy. We are hopeful this would help to create awareness regarding the procedure and thus reduce unsafe abortions.
What Is Abortion?
Abortion is the common term used for the procedure to end a pregnancy so that it does not result in the birth of a child. It is also called ‘termination of pregnancy.
It can be done by using either medical or surgical methods.
What Is The Full Form Of MTP?
MTP stands for Medical Termination of Pregnancy
What Are The Reasons For Doing MTP?
MTP may be done for specific reasons including:
1. Pregnancy posing risk to the mother’s physical health
2. Pregnancy posing risk to the mother’s mental health
3. The baby born out of the pregnancy may be at risk of physical anomalies (fetal abnormalities)
4. The baby born out of the pregnancy may be at risk of mental anomalies
5. The pregnancy is a result of rape, as alleged by the woman
6. The pregnancy is a result of the failure of the contraceptive method.
How Is Abortion Done?
Abortion or MTP may be done in two different ways, depending on the period of pregnancy and personal choices.
1. Medical Abortion—This procedure is done early in the pregnancy (before nine weeks), where you are advised to use certain medicines for termination. You will be given an MTP kit with oral medications. After one to weeks of medicines, an ultrasound is done to ensure completeness of the procedure.
2. Surgical Abortion—When the pregnancy has gone beyond nine weeks, it may be terminated by surgical procedure. There are two types of surgical abortions:
Dilatation and curettage Method
What Is Medical Abortion?
When abortion is done using certain medicines it is called medical termination of pregnancy (MTP). This is done till 9 weeks of pregnancy.
What Is An MTP Kit?
An MTP kit/abortion kit is a kit used for medical termination of pregnancy up to 9 weeks of gestation. The kit contains 2 types of oral medications. The first medicine blocks the progesterone receptors needed for pregnancy.
The second receptor induces contractions in the uterus so that products of conception are expelled outside the uterus. Second medicine is given after 1-2 days of the first medicine.
What Basic Investigations Are Required Before Medical Abortion?
In the absence of any associated comorbidities, a few basic investigations are required prior to medical abortion. These include:
1. Blood group
3. Urine for albumin and sugar
4. Blood sugar levels
5. Ultrasound pelvis to confirm location and period of pregnancy
What Are The Side Effects Of MTP Kit?
1. Heavy Bleeding per vaginum
2. Abdominal pain
3. Fever, warmth, and chills
4. Gastrointestinal side effects nausea vomiting diarrhea
5. Headache and dizziness
How Effective Is The Medical Method Of Abortion?
1. Complete abortion 95-99%
2. Heavy bleeding requiring vacuum aspiration 1-2%
3. Incomplete abortion requiring vacuum aspiration 2-3%
4. Fail to abort 1%
5. Heavy bleeding requiring blood transfusion 0.1-0.2%
Ref. : Guidelines for Early Medical Abortion in India using Mifepristone and Misoprostol. WHO-CCR in Human Reproduction. AIIMS and MoHFW.
When Should I Seek Emergency Medical Care?
1. Heavy vaginal bleeding
2. Severe abdominal pain
3. Dizziness/ syncopal attack
4. Purulent/Foul-smelling vaginal discharge
5. Urgent medical attention should be sought in case of warning signs.
What Is The Follow-Up Protocol For Medical Abortion?
After 7-14 days of medicines, you are called again for a follow-up visit. Here, an ultrasound is done to ensure the completeness of the process. Additionally, the examination is done to rule out any infection-related complications.
Recovery After MTP
If you have undergone a medical/surgical abortion, ensure you take lots of rest and a healthy protein-rich diet following the procedure.
What Is The Cost Of Medical Termination Of Pregnancy (MTP)?
If you have decided to undergo MTP and want to know the cost of this process click here. The MTP cost may vary from person to person or case to case based on several factors.
From Where Can I Get MTP Kit?
For getting MTP done, you need to visit Gynecologist. This you can find by searching best gynaecologist near me / best gynaecologist.
Is Abortion Legal In India?
Yes, abortion is legal in India and is governed by the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act that was passed by Parliament in August 1971.
The MTP Act permitted abortion under stipulated circumstances up to a certain gestational period under specific circumstances and based on expert medical opinion.
Will Confidentiality Be Maintained While I Am Going For MTP?
As a rule, the name and details of a woman whose pregnancy has been terminated under this Act are not disclosed (except to a person authorized by any law for the time being in force.
Note – Getting an abortion is a major decision that can affect your mental and physical health. Consult your doctor/gynecologist and talk to trusted friends or family before taking this big step.
In case you have decided to go for the procedure and you are trying to find out where to go, you can search by typing gynaecologist near me / best gynaecologist near me / lady doctor near me.
Wishing you good health